A bunion is a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of your big toe. It forms when your big toe pushes against your next toe, forcing the joint of your big toe to get bigger and stick out.


There are many theories about how bunions develop, but the exact cause is unknown.

Factors likely include:

  • Inherited foot type
  • Foot injuries
  • Deformities present at birth (congenital)

Risk factors

  • These factors might increase your risk of bunions:
  • High heels.
  • Ill-fitting shoes.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Heredity.


Although they don’t always cause problems, bunions are permanent unless surgically corrected. Possible complications include:

  • Bursitis. This painful condition occurs when the small fluid-filled pads (bursae) that cushion bones, tendons and muscles near your joints become inflamed.
  • Hammertoe. An abnormal bend that occurs in the middle joint of a toe, usually the toe next to your big toe, can cause pain and pressure.
  • Metatarsalgia. This condition causes pain and inflammation in the ball of your foot.

Conservative treatment

Nonsurgical treatments that may relieve the pain and pressure of a bunion include:

  • Changing shoes. Wear roomy, comfortable shoes that provide plenty of space for your toes.
  • Padding and taping or splinting. Use over-the-counter, non-medicated bunion pads. Also, your doctor can help you tape your foot in a normal position. This can reduce stress on the bunion and alleviate your pain.
  • Shoe inserts. Padded shoe inserts can help distribute pressure evenly when you move your feet, reducing your symptoms and preventing your bunion from getting worse. Over-the-counter arch supports can provide relief for some people; others require prescription orthotic devices.

Surgical options

If conservative treatment doesn’t provide relief from your symptoms, you might need surgery.

Cold Sore

Cold Sore

Why Doesn’t Everyone Get Them?

About two-thirds of us have been infected with the HSV-1 virus. It usually comes via well-meaning kisses from relatives or romantic partners. So why do only an unlucky few get cold sores? The answer may be in your genes. Most people who get cold sores share genes that may relate to how HSV-1 acts in your body. This could be what causes outbreaks.

HSV-1 lives in your nerves. It’s pretty quiet most of the time, but you may have triggers that bring it out of hiding — and cause cold sores.

What Are The Triggers?

  1. Recurrence may be triggered by:
  2. Viral infection or fever
  3. Hormonal changes, such as those related to menstruation
  4. Stress
  5. Fatigue
  6. Exposure to sunlight and wind
  7. Changes in the immune system

How To Ease The Discomfort:

Apply a cold sore ointment. It must be applied frequently and may shorten an outbreak by a few hours or a day.

  1. Use lip balms and cream. Protect your lips from the sun with a zinc oxide cream or lip balm with sunblock. If your lips become dry, apply a moisturizing cream.
  2. Apply a cool compress. A cool, damp cloth may reduce redness, help remove crusting and promote healing.
  3. Apply pain-relieving creams or pain medication. Over-the-counter creams with lidocaine or benzocaine may offer some pain relief.

There’s no cure for HSV infection, and the blisters may return.

See your doctor when you have cold sore as antiviral medications can help cold sores heal more quickly and may reduce how often they return.

Also try to avoid known trigger to prevent cold sore recurrence.